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They require constant upgrading, which is usually not cheap. Computer viruses are a serious danger to work. And computers are not absolutely safe for human health, either. Difference in written translation and interpreting has been fixed by two international professional associations: F.
As is seen from the name of the professional association, interpreters are often called conference interpreters, though their functions can be much broader. Conference interpreting is known to have started after World War I, at the Conference on the Preliminaries of Peace in Until then all international meetings had been held in French, the language of 19 th century diplomacy. The first conference interpreters did consecutive interpreting , i.
The interpreters worked in teams of two, each into his mother tongue. At the League of Nations, interpreters went to the rostrum to deliver their translation as soon as the speaker had finished. Occasionally speeches lasted well over an hour, so the interpreters, considering it bad taste to interrupt a speaker, developed a technique of consecutive interpreting with note-taking.
Two Geneva conference interpreters, J. Rozan and J. This brought to life recommendations to would-be interpreters on how to take notes in order to memorize the message and not to interrupt the speaker. It is based on the conceptual representation of the message utterance by utterance and helps to single out the main idea of the speaker.
The main principles of note-taking are as follows:. Object homogeneous parts of the sentence are written one under the other. These days consecutive interpreting is used mostly in bilateral contacts, to serve only two languages. Interpreting may take place in two directions when the interpreter has to work for both language participants. This is a two-way, or bidirectional, translation interpretation and it requires a special skill of switching the languages to speak to, suppose, a Russian participant in Russian and to an English participant in English and not vice versa.
A one-way interpreting means translation from one language only and is usually employed for summit meetings. There is a sub-variety of the consecutive interpreting, known as postponed consecutive interpreting. Consecutive interpreters are also called linear interpreters , for their translation is in line with the source text unlike simultaneous translation that overlaps the original speech. Simultaneous interpreting , i. Simultaneous interpreting gained ground at the United Nations Organization that began the era of multilateral diplomacy.
They work in a special booth, listening through a headset to the speaker in the conference room and interpreting into a microphone, while at the same time watching what is going on in the meeting room through the booth window or viewing projections on the TV screen.
Delegates in the conference room listen to the target-language version through a headset. Simultaneous translation is usually employed at multilanguage multilateral meetings, so that conference participants can switch their headphones to the appropriate language channel.
Simultaneous interpreting is very exhausting work. It requires extremely concentrated attention. Several skills are simultaneously featured: listening, speaking, switching to another language, compressing information.
Simultaneous interpreting is possible due to the human ability to anticipate and forecast what will be said in some minutes вероятностное прогнозирование. Simultaneous translation may take place not only in the special booth. This type of translation is often used in a business meeting. It is a most strenuous task, for the interpreter has to be watchful of the speaker deviating from the text.
Written translation is also divided into sub-varieties. The most obvious differences between written translation and interpreting are as follows:. Following the United Nations norms of six to eight pages of written translation per day, the professional translator typically produces about five words per minute or words per hour. The simultaneous interpreter, in contrast, has to respond instantly at a rate of words per minute or words per hour. According to the dominating function of the source text, translations are divided into literary and informative groups.
In literary translation, the poetic function of the text prevails. It is the translation of fiction prose, drama, and poetry. To translate a literary work, a translator should apply for the copyright. Informative translation is the translation of texts on science, technology, official writings, business messages, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.
These texts can also have an expressive function, but it is not dominating in the text. The prevailing function here is informative. Translation theorists have long disputed the interrelation of the two terms. Komissarov considers them to denote non-identical but closely related notions.
He claims that adequate translation is broader in meaning than equivalent translation. Adequate translation is good translation, as it provides communication in full. Equivalent translation is the translation providing the semantic identity of the target and source texts. Shveitser refers the two terms to two aspects of translation: translation as result and translation as process. We can speak of equivalent translation when we characterize the end-point result of translation, as we compare whether the translated text corresponds to the source text.
Adequacy characterizes the process of translation. For example, Здравствуйте , я ваша тетя! Close to this understanding of translation adequacy is E. Retsker states that the notion of adequate translation comprises that of equivalent 3 1. According to him, an adequate target text describes the same reality as does the source text and at the same time it produces the same effect upon the receptor.
Translation adequacy is achieved by three types of regular correlations:. Literal translation is the translation that reproduces communicatively irrelevant elements of the source text, This usually happens when the translator copies the source language form on this or that level of the language.
According to the language level, there exist various types of literal translation:. As an example, We often heard his name mentioned. Thus, to use the example by V. Therefore, to produce the same impact upon the receptor as does the original, the translator has to partition the English sentence and make it more adaptable to a Russian: Прошлой ночью в проливе Па-де-Кале стоял туман.
Море было спокойно. We can see that very often literal translation is not necessarily a word-for-word translation, although it is often associated with a rather negative evaluation of the translation. Literal translation is sometimes referred to as formal, or grammar translation, though it is not the same.
However, sometimes literal translation on this or that level is a must. The translator cannot do without it when rendering proper and geographical names Khabarov, Nakhodka ; some borrowings Red Guards — хунвэйбины is a literal translation on a semantic level , into English of the Chinese hong Red wei bing Guard , while the Russian word is a literal reproduction of the Chinese word on a sound level.
Free translation is the reproduction of the source form and content in a loose way. This concept means adding extra elements of information or losing some essential ones. Of course, it is not very accomplished of a translator to add details not described by the author, as was often done by a well-known sometimes notorious Russian translator I. Neither is it proficient to contract the source text like A. Nevertheless, free translation is appropriate in some cases: poetry translations are done with a certain degree of freedom.
A translator is also free to modernize a classic text in order to subvert established target-language reader-response. Free translation is also admitted in the titles of novels, movies, etc. Recently translation theorists have begun to relate free translation to communicative translation , depending on the purpose of the translation, and literal translation to the so-called semantic translation.
Communicative translation tends to undertranslate, i. A semantic translation tends to overtranslate, i. Newmark, however, distinguishes semantic translation - as the attempt to render as closely as possible the semantic and syntactic structures of the target language, from literal translation, when the primary senses of the lexical words of the original are translated as though out of context. He defines communicative translation as that which produces on its receptors an effect similar to that on the receptors of the original.
It is a cardinal problem that is a cornerstone of the translation art and craft. The reasons for the lack of belief in achieving adequate translation have been expressed time and again. Thus the transfer can never be total. There are no such realia in Russia, so the translation can be only approximate, descriptive or analogous.
Reality is segmented differently by languages, which depends upon the environment, culture and other circumstances people live in. The loss of meaning may be attributed to the different language systems and structures. There is no category of noun gender in English, so the translation of the Russian sentence Студентка пришла by the English The student has come might be non-equal, since the English sentence is more generic and corresponds also to the Russian Студент пришел.
The loss of meaning can also be accounted for by idiosyncrasies, that is noncoincidence, of the individual uses of the speaker or text-writer and the translator. Peopleб speaking even the same languageб are apt to attach private meanings to some words. Hence various misunderstandings and communicative failures.
Can you guess what was meant in the sign written outside Hong Kong tailors shop? Ladies may have a fit upstairs. And what could the tourist understand from the advertisement for donkey rides in Thailand: Would you like to ride on your own ass? Dante Alighieri claimed that no poem can be translated without having its beauty and harmony spoilt. Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra likened the works in translation to the wrong side of a Flemish tapestry: you can see only vague figures and cannot admire the bright colors of its right side.
No matter what reasons might be given by theorists, translation practice has been proving that this concept is groundless. Though sceptical and negative, the concept played its positive role in the history of translation. It has caused scholars to ponder over language and culture discrepancies and to give up the idea of one language mechanically overlapping another one to convey the message. Translation equivalence does not mean that source and target texts are identical.
It is a degree of similarity between source and target texts, measured on a certain level. Viewed from the semiotic angle, the source and target texts can be identical pragmatically, semantically and structurally. Every text should be equivalent to the source text pragmatically, which means that the both texts should have one and the same communicative function. The target text should have the same impact upon the receptor as the source text has.
Semantic identity implies describing the same situation, using similar lexical meaning of the units, and similar grammatical meaning of the elements. Structural similarity presupposes the closest possible formal correspondence between the source text and the target text.
According to V. Komissarov, one can distinguish five levels of equivalence: pragmatic, situational, lexical semantic , grammatical, structural levels. First and foremost, the translation must retain the same communicative function as the source text. Jakobson, who pointed out the following:. Жизнь влила в твои бока? These sentences have only one thing in common: general intent of communication, communication aim, or function.
At first glance, the source and target texts have no obvious logical connection; they usually designate different situations, have no common semes i. The source and the target texts can describe the same situation from different angles with different words and structures: I meant no harm.
There are no parallel lexical or structural units in these counterparts. Therefore, their content is different, the word semes are different, grammar relations between the sentence components are different. Nevertheless, the utterances correspond to each other in their communicative functions and in the similarity of the described situation.
Because of this identity, V. Frequently one and the same situation is referred to in different languages. This is particularly true of set phrases: Fragile. Beware of the dog! Some situations cannot be translated: for example, Приятного аппетита! In place of this lacuna, English people use the French idiom Bon appetit!
There is also no equivalent for the Russian С легким паром. Dealing with the transformation of meaning implies a semantic variation, or semantic paraphrase of the source language utterance. For example, the sentence in the original can be translated as if the situation were viewed from a different angle: He was not unlike his mother.
He is my son. Or some words of the source language sentence are paraphrased in translation: After her illness, she became as skinny as a toothpick. Or the target sentence can verbalize the idea in more detail than the source language sentence: Сегодня Борису не до шуток. On this level of equivalence, the source and the target sentences have the same function aim , they describe the same situation, and their meanings are approximately identical, whereas their grammar structures are different.
As is known, the meaning of each word consists of semes, the smallest sense component. The set of semes in the source and target sentences is the same, but they are grouped differently and, therefore, are verbalized in different ways and do not have the same syntactic structure. Komissarov states that on this level the two sentences match because they have approximately the same method of the situation description.
On this level, the target and the source language sentences manifest grammar transformations: the passive predicate can be translated by the active: The port can be entered by big ships only in tide. Likewise, part of speech can be changed in translation: We had a long walk. Or the structure of the sentence can be modified: Jane was heard playing the piano.
Any other change of the grammar meaning within the sentence testifies to the equivalence on the transformational level, which is called by V. Komissarov the level of the invariant meaning of the syntactic structure. This level of equivalence presupposes retention of the utterance function, the description of the same situation, the same meaning of the source and target sentences, and a very close but variable grammatical meaning.
On this level, the most possible semantic semilarity between the source and target sentences is found: Every mother loves her children. I will write you every week. As a matter of fact, this is a word for word translation where each word and the whole structure retains its lexical and grammatical meaning, the situation designated by the sentences is identical, and the communicative function of the utterances is the same.
Every form of the target sentence is equal, with no variations, to that of the source language sentence. The relationship between the levels of equivalence is not random. Each subsequent level presupposes a preceding one. Thus, the level of lexical and grammatical equivalence implies that the phrases have the same grammatical and lexical meanings transformation and semantic equivalence , refer to the same situation, and have the same function.
Phrases equivalent at the semantic level have similar semantics, describe the same situation and perform the same function; however, they do not have close grammatical meaning, since this level of equivalence is higher than the transformational level. Thus, the hierarchy observed between the level of equivalence is unilateral, the lower levels presupposing the higher ones, but not the other way about.
The hierarchy of levels does not imply the degree of evaluation. A lower level of equivalence does not mean a worse level. A higher level of equivalence is not a better one. A translation can be good at any level. This depends on a number of factors, such as the aim of the author, the requirements of the text, the perception by the receptor.
Pragmatics of translation seems to dominate all other aspects of this type of communication. To transfer a form from one language to another with different alphabets, the translator either copies the form by the letters of the target language or changes it by making transformations.
Transcription, or copying the sound form of the source language word by means of the target language letters: eau de cologne — одеколон , hake - хек ;. Some linguists V. Komissarov, for one consider calque blueprint translation as mechanical copying. Calque is translation by parts: extralinguistic — внеязыковой , carry-out — на вынос , старовер — Old Believer. Since the calqued word is not just a mechanical borrowing of the form but it undergoes some changes, this device is, to some extent, an actual translation, which includes form transformations.
Translation transformations are complete changes of the appearance of a translated word, phrase, or sentence. In foreign translation theory, transformations are known as shifts of translation. Translation transformations can be of three categories:. It is essential to differentiate between a phonetic transcription and a practical or translation transcription. In a phonetic transcription, sounds are depicted by special symbols on the basis of their articulatory and auditory identity.
A practical transcription is an interlinguistic operation as it deals with two languages: the sounds of the source language word are rendered by the letters of the target languge : Anchorage — Анкоридж , Oakland - Окленд. Because the English Latin and Russian Cyrillic alphabets and sounds do not coincide, there are special rules 4 8 for representing English sounds by Russian letters and Russian sounds by English letters.
Sometimes these sounds correspond to the Russian C, which is a bit outdated: Galswor th y — Голсуор с и. But when followed by the vowel [u], the consonant [w] is rendered by the letter В : W oolf — В улф , W odehouse — В удхаус. However, there are some traditional cases of the sound [w] represented by the letter В : W ashington — В ашингтон , W alter Scott — В альтер Скотт. The same is true in reference to the borrowed mostly German names: W agner — В агнер , W ilhelm — В ильгельм.
Thus some words acquire two forms in Russian: Hoffman — Хофман , Гофман. The vowel [з:] after the consonant corresponds to the Russian Ё : B ur ns — Б ё рнс. Russian sounds in English transcription are usually represented as follows:. Care should be taken, however, with foreign words: they usually have their native form: Цюрих — Zurich, Цейлон — Ceylon, Цзянси — Jiangxi.
One should pay special attention to transcribing East Asian Chinese, Japanese, and Korean words into English and Russian, especially when doing tertiary translation of Asian words from English into Russian or vice versa. It is neccessary to remember that because of the difference in phonetic systems, East Asian sounds are designated differently in English and Russian.
Thus, in Japanese words, the sound symbolized by the English sh is somewhere between [s] and [S]; therefore, in Russian it is transcribed by the letter C : e. The letter L can indicate the sound quality between [l] and [r]. Abroad, transliteration, defined as writing a word in a different alphabet, 4 9 is often associated with transcription.
However, strictly speaking, the notion of transliteration is based on representing written characters of one language by the characters of another language. There are a number of different systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet. Different languages have different equivalents for Russian letters. Even in English there are several systems for transliteration of modern Russian, which range from the system suitable for works intended for the general reading public to those suitable for the needs of special in various fields.
When transliterating, it is best to use the version which most closely approximates the source language word. Thus the forms ruble, kopek, tsar are preferable to the alternatives rouble, kopeck, czar. Transliteration and transcription often compete, so that sometimes it is difficult to state how to render a word especially a personal or place name in the other language. But transliteration is preferred to transcription in bibliographical citations found in publications: Arakin, V.
Sravnitelnaja tipologija anglijskogo i russkogo jazykov. In the dispute between transcription and transliteration, some factors should be kept in mind:. Lomonosov wrote about Невтон transliteration. Special attention should be given to transliterating Chinese words into Russian and English, especially in tertiary translation.
There are two ways of transliterating Chinese syllables and words into English. In the English-speaking world since Chinese words have usually been transliterated according to a phonetic spelling system called Wade-Giles romanization, propounded by British Orientalists Sir Thomas Wade and Herbert Giles. Therefore a Chinese loan word can have two English scripts: e. When translating words borrowed from Chinese, it is recommended to consult special charts of transliteration Chinese syllables see Appendix 2.
The main principles of correspondence between English and Russian syllables in transliterating Chinese words are as follows:. There can occur half - calques in cases where half of the word is borrowed through transcription or transliteration and the other half is translated: South Korea — Южная Корея , Old Jolyon — Старый Джолион. Grammar transformations are morphological or syntactical changes in translated units. They are subdivided into the following types:.
Grammar substitution, when a grammar category of the translated unit is changed. Thus a passive construction can be translated by an active voice verb form: Martin Heidegger is generally regarded as one of the most influential founders of existentialism. The reason for this transformation is stylistic: in English the passive voice is used much more often in neutral speech, whereas in Russian this category is more typical of the formal style.
Or there may be substitution of the noun number category, the singular by the plural or vice versa: Her hair is fair and wavy. This transformation is due to the structural difference between the English and Russian languages: in English the analyzed noun is Singularia Tantum, in Russian it is used in the plural. Parts of speech, along with the parts of the sentence, can be changed: He is a poor swimmer.
The reason for this transformation can be accounted for by language usage preferences: English tends to the nominal expression of the state, Russian can denote the general state by means of the verb. Word order change. Usually the reason for this transformation is that English and Russian sentences have different information structures, or functional sentence perspective. Sentence partitioning is the replacement of a simple sentence in the source text with a complex sentence with some clauses , or a complex sentence with several independent sentences in the target text for structural, semantic or stylistic reasons: I want you to undestand this transformation.
Моя машина не завелась, поэтому я не смогла заехать за вами. Sentence integration is a contrary transformation. It takes place when we make one sentence out of two or more, or convert a complex sentence into a simple one: If one knows languages, one can come out on top.
In ancient Rome, garlic was believed to make people courageous. Roman soldiers, therefore, ate large quantities of it before a battle. Grammar compensation is a deliberate change of the grammar category by some other grammar means. Compensation takes place when a grammar category or form does not exist in the target laguage and, therefore, cannot produce the same impact upon the target text receptor. This can be illustrated by translating a sentence with a mistaken pronoun form from English into Russian.
Lexical transformations change the semantic core of a translated word. They can be classified into the following groups:. Lexical substitution, or putting one word in place of another. It often results from the different semantic structures of the source language and target language words.
Thus the word молодой is not always translated as young; rather, it depends on its word combinability: молодой картофель is equal to new potatoes. This translation equivalent is predetermined by the word combination it is used in. This type of translation can hardly be called substitution, since it is a regular equivalent for this phrase.
Deliberate substitution as a translation technique can be of several subtypes:. Specification, or substituting words with a wider meaning with words of a narrower meaning: Will you do the room? The underlined English words have larger scopes of meaning than their Russian counterparts and their particular semantics is recognized from the context.
If we compare the semantic structure of the English and Russian verbs, we can see that the English stare specifies the action of seeing expressed by the Russian verb. The Russian смотреть can imply staring, facing, eyeing, etc. The specific meaning in the Russian sentence can be expressed by the adverb пристально. Another reason for generalization in translating can be that the particular meaning expressed by the source language word might be irrelevant for the translation receptor: She bought the Oolong tea on her way home.
Oolong is a sort of Chinese tea but for the receptor this information is not important; therefore, the translator can generalize. Differentiation is a rather rare technique of substitution. It takes place when we substitute a word by another one with parallel meaning, denoting a similar species: bamboo curtain — железный занавес. Both bamboo and железо iron are materials known for their hard nature.
They are used figuratively to denote the barriers between the Western and Communist countries bamboo curtain in reference to China, железный занавес in reference to other Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Aid states. There are no hyponymic relations between the notions of bamboo and iron though the referential area of железный занавес is of course much wider than that of bamboo curtain. Modulation is a logical development of the notion expressed by the word: But outside it was raining.
The primary equivalent of the word outside is с наружи. By means of unsophisticated logical operation the translator finds another equivalent: на улице. Thus he takes into consideration a tradition of the word combination and acceptability of collocation.
He is aided in this by the metonymical closeness of word meanings based on contiguity of the two notions. The main reason for this transformation is a vocabulary lacuna in the target language. But there is no one-word equivalent of the same stylistic coloring in Russian.
Therefore, the translator compensated the word by using the word тигрица to characterize the lady. Metaphoric transformations are based on transferring the meaning due to the similarity of notions. The source language metaphor can be destroyed if there is no similar idiom in the target language: Весна уже на пороге.
Or, on the contrary, the target text is metaphorized either to compensate a stylistically marked word or phrase whose coloring was lost for some reason, or merely to express a source language lacuna: Он решил начать жить по - новому. This type of transformations concerns both the lexical semantic and grammatical level, i. The following techniques can be associated with lexical and grammatical transformations:. Explicatory translation , that is, rewording the meaning into another structure so that the receptor will have a better understanding of the phrase.
Sometimes this transformation is named as explicitation , defined as the technique of making explicit in the target text information that is imlicit in the source text. The reason for which this transformation is made is that the target text receptor has different background knowledge. Sometimes this transformation is required because of the dissimilarity between the language structures, with the source language structure being incomplete for the target language, like gun licence is удостоверение на право ношения оружия.
Reduction omission , implicitation is giving up redundant and communicatively irrelevant words: Elvis Presley denied being lewd and obscene. The reduction is a must if a source language expresses the notion by a phrase and the target language compresses the idea in one word: сторонники охраны окружающей среды — conservationists. There is a general tendency of the English language to laconic and compressed expressions as compared with Russian: внебюджетные источники финансирования — nonbudget sources; контроль за ходом проекта — the Project control.
Help yourself. Antonymic translation is describing the situation by the target language from the contrary angle. It can be done through antonyms: the inferiority of friendly troops — превосходство сил противника. The reason for this transformation is the lack of a one-word translation equivalent to the word inferiority.
This transformation can also take place when we change the negation modality of the sentence: She is not unworthy of your attention. In the English sentence we deal with double negation, called understatement, which, according to logic rules, means the positive expressed in the Russian sentence.
Through understatement, English-speaking people avoid expressing their ideas in too a categoric tone. Metonymical translation is the transferance of meaning and structure based on the contiguity of forms and meanings of the source and target languages: The last twenty years has seen many advances in our linguistic knowledge.
In the English sentence, time is expressed by the subject of the sentence, whereas in Russian it is more typical to express it by the adverbial modifier. This causes grammar restructuring of the sentence.
Complex compensation is a deliberate change of the word or structure by another one because the exact equivalent of the target language word or phrase is unable to produce the same impact upon the receptor as does the source language word or phrase. For example, we often have to compensate on the lexical level the meaning of the Past Perfect in the Russian text translation, since there is no similar tense category in Russian: Their food, clothing and wages were less bad than they had been.
To start a machine translation, computer designers invited a group of experienced translators to ask them a question, seemingly naive but directly referring to their profession: how do you translate? Could you tell us in detail everything about the translation process? What operation follows what? Dmitri Zhukov, a professional translator, reminisces 5 4 that this simple question took everyone by surprise, for it is a terribly difficult thing to explain what the process of translation is.
Attempts to conceptualize the translation process have brought to life some theories, or models, of translation. The translation model is a conventional description of mental operations on speech and language units, conducted by a translator, and their explanation. Each model explains the process of translation in a restrictive way, from its own angle, and, therefore, cannot be considered comprehensive and wholly depicting the mechanism of translation. But together they make the picture of translation process more vivid and provide a translator with a set of operations to carry out translation.
One and the same situation is denoted by the source and target language. But each language does it in its own way. To denote means to indicate either the thing a word names or the situation a sentence names. Hence is the term of denotative meaning , or referential meaning, i. To translate correctly, a translator has to comprehend the situation denoted by the source text - as P. Newmark stressed, one should translate ideas, not words 5 5 and then find the proper means of the target language to express this situation idea.
If the translator does not understand the situation denoted by the source text, his or her translation will not be adequate, which sometimes happens when an inexperienced translator attempts to translate a technical text. The main requirement of translation is that the denotation of the source text be equal to the denotation of the target text. That is why a literary word-for-word translation sometimes results in a failure of communication. Возьми хлеба в булочной. Thus, this model of translation emphasizes identification of the situation as the principal phase of the translation process.
This theory of translation is helpful in translating neologisms and realia: to give a proper equivalent to the phrase Red Guards , which is an English calque from Chinese, we should know what notion is implied by the phrase. As a matter of fact, this model of translation is used for attaining the equivalent on the situation level. The situation helps to determine whether a translation is acceptable or not.
For example, we have to translate the sentence Somebody was baited by the rights. But in case we know that by the smb President Roosevelt is meant, our translation will be inappropriate and we had better use the equivalent Президент Рузвельт подвергался резким нападкам со стороны правых. A weak point of this model is that it does not explain the translation mechanismitself.
One situation can be designated by various linguistic means. Why choose this or that variable over various others? The model gives no answer to this question. Another flaw in this theory is that it does not describe the systemic character of the linguistic units. Why do the elements of the idiom to lead somebody by the nose not correspond to the Russian обвести за нос? Why does this idiom correspond to the Russian держать верх над кем - то?
This model does not describe the relations between the language units in a phrase or sentence and thus gives no explanation of the relations between the source and target language units. This model gives reference only to the extralinguistic situation designated by the sentence. When translating, a person transforms the source text into a new form. Transformation is converting one form into another one. In one of them, transformation is understood as an interlinguistic process, i.
Special rules can be described for transforming source language structures as basic units into target language structures corresponding to the basic units. In the second concept, transformation is not understood as broadly as replacing the source language structures by the target language structures. Transformation here is part of a translation process, which has three phases 5 6 :.
Analysis: the source language structures are transformed into basic units of the source language. For example, the sentence I saw him enter the room. He entered the room. Translation proper: the basic units of the source language are translated into the basic units of the target language: Я видела его.
Он вошел в комнату. Synthesis: the basic units of the target language are transformed into the terminal structures of the target language: Я видел , что он вошел в комнату. As is seen, this concept develops the ideas of generative grammar introduced by N. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this model? It is employed in contrastive analysis of two language forms that are considered to be translation equivalents, as it verbalizes what has been transformed in them and how.
This model provides us with transformation techniques. It explains how we translate equivalent-lacking structures into another language. This model is important for teaching translation bacause it recommends that one transform a complex structure into a simple one. However, a disadvantage of this model consists in inability to explain the choice of the transformation made, especially at the third synthesis phase.
It does not explain the facts of translation equivalence on the situational level. It also ignores sociocultural and extralinguistic aspects of translation. This model places special emphasis on semantic structures of the source and target texts.
According to it, translation is conveying the meaning of the source text by the target text. The two texts can be called equivalent in meaning if their semantic components are close or identical. In order to translate, one must single out the meaningful elements of the original and then choose the target language units that most closely express the same content elements.
This model is sometimes called Content-Text Model. Like in the transformation model, the process of translation is subdivided into some phases:. Analysis: the semantics of the source language units are represented by deep semantic categories. Translation: the relevant semantic categories of the source language are made equal to the deep semantic categories of the target language. This model gives a good explanation of the translation equivalence and of the reasons for translation failures when irrelevant or not all relevant semes have been taken into consideration.
It explains the mechanism of selecting one variable among synonyms: that synonym is chosen which has the greatest number of relevant semes similar to the source language word. But the insufficiency of this model is that the process of singling out semes is a very difficult one. It does not explain the cases of situational equivalence - why instant coffee is equal to растворимый кофе , with their semes not coinciding?
It also ignores connotations of the word and the function of the text. Translation is a kind of speech event. And it develops according to the psychological rules of speech event. The scheme of the speech event consists of the following phases:. The point of this theory is that it considers translation among speaking, listening, reading and writing as a speech event.
But there is evidence to suggest that translators and interpreters listen and read, speak and write in a different way from other language users, basically because they operate under a different set of constraints. There are two essential stages specific to the process of translating and interpreting: analysis and synthesis 6 0 — and a third stage, revision, available only to the translator working with the written text. During synthesis, the target text is produced.
However, the explanational force of this model is very restricted, inner speech being the globally disputable problem in both psychology and linguistics. Thus, systemic dissimilarity of forms takes place when one of the languages lacks some grammar category and, therefore, has no corresponding form.
For example, English possesses the morphological categories of the article or the gerund lacking in the Russian language; whereas in Russian there is a category of adverbial participle деепричастие missing in the English language.
To translate these forms, one has to compensate them or restructure the sentence. Unique categories in one of the languages can occur at the syntactic level as well. For example, English absolute constructions, complex object and complex subject with the infinitive and participle , are alien to the Russian language. Therefore, they require special attention from students of English.
On the other hand, there are linguistic phenomena that exist in both languages but differ in some details, which also causes difficulties in translation. For example, passive voice is found both in English and Russian, but in English it is represented by the indirect and prepositional passive construction He is given a book.
He is asked for. Objective reasons for formal dissimilarities include differences in word combination norms and models that make up language traditions. Similar structures in both languages can be used with different frequency in different types of text.
Violation of the frequency rate can lead to awkward language usage. For example, an English scientific text utilizes more simple sentences, whereas in Russian one can find an abundance of complex sentences. Thus the objective reasons for formal dissimilarities can be classified into those caused by the language system, by norm and by usage.
They also include pragmatic adaptations of the sentence to the receptor by adding or reducing some information in the utterance which results in complex rather than grammar transformations : WSU is located in Pullman, WA. The translator chose here a complex sentence instead of a simple one Он пал за неделю до объявления перемирия , perhaps because this structure was more typical for his idiolect than the second one.
These reasons are of a subjective character, as compared with the first group. Every student of English has been challenged by the difference between English and Russian tense and aspect categories. To begin with, in English there are four major aspect groups Simple, Progressive, Perfect, Perfect Progressive , showing how the action is performed, multiplied by four time indicators Present, Past, Future, Future in the Past.
In Russian there are three time indicators, called tenses Present, Past, Future , and two aspects, perfective and imperfective. Therefore, English and Russian forms are not parallel, though some regularities might be observed between them. When expressing an action as a single fact, a Simple tense corresponds to the Russian perfective form: When I heard the news, I walked faster and faster.
Very often the contrast between the meanings expressed by a Simple tense is seen in the microcontext: a single action is indicated by a verb-noun predicate: She gave a cry. She cried hoarsely. Progressive tenses, denoting temporary continuous actions, correspond to the Russian imperfective form: He first became interested in drama when he was working abroad. The same holds true in reference to permanent actions expressed in emotional speech: You are always coming late!
Birds will be flying back soon. Вскоре прилетят птицы. By the time we got there the rain had stopped. To render the meaning of completion expressed by the Perfect verb, a translator has to use the technique of compensation and extension by introducing adverbs implying completion: уже , еще , etc. Therefore, there is no need, when translating from Russian into English the sentence Я уже прочел эту книгу , to use the adverb already.
I have read the book is enough to express the completed action. I have eaten at that restaurant many times. It is not infrequent that Perfect tenses require lexical compensation in translation: Russian literature has possessed the feeling of the sole. I have lived here for two years. He had been a captain. Perfect Progressive tense forms denote an action begun before another action and continued into it; they correspond to the Russian imperfective forms: He has been studying Japanese for three years.
There is also asymmetry in expressing tense distinctions in English and Russian. Russian future tenses correspond to English present tense forms in adverbial clauses: Если он придет , я дам вам знать. When the English present tense is used to denote the near future, in Russian the present tense form alternates with the future: We are going downtown in some minutes.
The train arrives in five minutes. Who has been eating my soup? What are the possible traps for the translator beside this asymmetry? In this case the corresponding degree of expressiveness in Russian can be reached by lexical compensation: She is always complaining! Inexperienced students of translation, though they have studied the rule of Sequence of Tenses in their grammar class, are sometimes not aware that this rule does not exist in Russian.
The latter Russian sentence corresponds to the English I knew he had been in the village. English and Russian passive forms are different both in type of form constructions and in frequency. English passive voice is used more frequently due to the various types of construction it occurs in. Whereas Russian passive voice construction is formed only by transitive verbs requiring a direct object when used as an active voice structure, English passive is classified into four types of construction:.
It has a corresponding Russian passive voice form: Книга была дана ему. This form is translated by the corresponding Russian active voice verb in the impersonal sentence: Ему дали эту книгу. The corresponding Russian impersonal sentence is also with the active verb. Thus, only one type of English passive construction has a direct correspondence in Russian. But not all English direct passive constructions can be transformed into Russian passive, since the verb transitivity in English and Russian does not coincide.
Care should be taken when translating English parallel passive verbs, since they may correspond in Russian to the verbs of different cases: He was trusted and respected. As for passive forms, there are two types in English: be -passive and get- passive.
The latter is mostly used to indicate the starting point of the action: They got married. The get -passive is also used to express negative connotation, when the object of the action undergoes something unpleasant or dangerous: 1 24 He got hurt. Он обиделся. He got injured in a road accident. In Russian there are also two passive verb forms. They derive from the parallel synthetic and analytical forms: строился — был построен.
The difference between the forms is either semantic or stylistic. As for their meanings, the analytical form denotes a state, whereas the synthetic form expresses a process: Дом был построен этой бригадой. In English this difference is rendered by the Simple and the Progressive forms, respectively: The house was built by this team.
When no agent of the action is mentioned, the Russian synthetic verb form can be substituted in English by the prepositional noun predicative: Мост строится с прошлого года. Or the difference between the forms can be stylistic: while the analytical form is used in literary or academic works, the synthetic form in colloquial speech can also denote a fact, not a process, thus corresponding to the English The house was built by this team. As for the synonymy of the indefinite personal active and passive forms in Russian, the difference lies in style: the passive form is more formal: George was invited to spend the month of August in Crome.
It takes place when the main predicate is used in the passive voice and the following infinitive is also passive: The treaty is reported to have been signed by both parties. In translation, the predicate can be substituted by the active verb: Сообщают , что договор уже подписан обеими сторонами. The principal clause can also be substituted by a parenthetical one: Как сообщают , договор уже подписан обеими сторонами.
Or the passive infinitive can be substituted for the active one, so that the sentence subject turns into the sentence object: The prisoners were ordered to be shot. Finally, there might be a substitution by the noun: The music is intended to be played on the piano. In both English and Russian the Subjunctive Mood expresses a hypothetical, unreal action. In informal speech, though, the verb can be omitted, with only the particle expressing the hypothetical action: Чайку бы! Sometimes the Russian subjunctive form can be reduced to the conjunction чтобы only.
Usage of the English subjunctive forms depends on the clause structure and semantics of the main verb. On the other hand, clauses of the same syntactic function vary depending on the meaning of the main verb. In clauses depending on information verbs and expressing proposition the should do form is used In the year A.
The Russian subjunctive mood form does not indicate time relations, there being only one verb form. In English a speaker shows time distinctions by the verb forms: If I had known it yesterday and if I knew it now… I wish I could help you now. I wish I could have helped you in that accident. To render in Russian the meaning of the English sentence one has to compensate the English verb form by some modifier indicating time: If she were in New York, she would certainly call you.
If the meaning of time is clear from the context, a zero transformation is employed in Russian: The demonstration would have passed off quite peacefully, had the organizers taken a few elementary precautions. I wish you had not said it to him. It is not infrequent that English and Russian sentences differ in degree of certainty or uncertainty expressed by the mood construction.
It looks as if he were sick. I am not sure. In Russian this subtle difference in meaning is lost: Кажется , он болен. The challenges in translating the English infinitive are due to its specific forms, functions and structures. Unlike Russian, the English language possesses a number of forms of the same verb: the Simple infinitive, the Continuous infinitive, the Perfect infinitive, the Perfect Continuous infinitive.
The first two forms indicate actions simultaneous with that of the main predicate: Я рада , что вижу вас. Я рада , что читаю эту книгу. The Perfect and Perfect Continuous infinitives denote actions prior to that of the predicate: Я рада , что увидела вас. Я рада , что читала эту книгу. The actual meaning of the infinitive can be determined by the context only. English infinitive functions can also be a stumbling block for a fledgling translator.
The attributive function of the infinitive can cause difficulties in translation due to its modal meaning: This is a book to read. The type of modal meaning can be seen from the context: When nature has work to be done, she creates a genius to do it. Emerson — Когда природе предстоит что-то сделать, она создает гения, который может сделать это. However, it is not always necessary to verbalize the modal meaning in Russian: The latest reports from Europol, the organization to be established for the coordination of police work in all the countries of the European Union, indicates that it has not yet been able to agree on a single working language.
The function of some adverbial infinitives presents difficulties in translation. For example, the English infinitive can be used to denote a subsequent event or a parallel action, which is often confused with the infinitive of purpose: Iron combines with oxygen to form rust.
The infinitive in this function is usually rendered by a parallel finite verb: In many rooms, one wall or another was overgrown with black-green mold. This infinitive should be distinguished from the infinitive of purpose: Live not to eat, but eat to live. When translating the infinitive of result, a translator should take care to render properly the connotation of the construction: the infinitive with too implies a negative meaning, while the infinitive with enough suggests a positive one: She is too old to go there.
She is old enough to go there. Infinitive constructions are the most challenging problem. They are usually translated by a clause. For instance, the Complex Object construction: We expect them to pay us by Friday. When translating the Complex Subject construction, it is recommended that the finite verb be translated first, and then the subject and the infinitive be joined to form a clause: After a few minutes the men were seen to be running in all directions. The letter seems to have been opened.
The main verb of the sentence is translated with the indefinite or impersonal form кажется , видели or with a parenthetical phrase конечно , по - видимому , очевидно : The reporters were certain to misunderstand his attendance When dealing with the for-to-infinitive construction, a translator substitutes an English simple sentence with a Russian complex one, i. In some cases this type of construction can be rendered by a compound sentence: He was a very nice fellow, you had only to say you wanted something for him to give it to you.
Special difficulties can arise from the Absolute construction with the infinitive. This construction usually has the meaning either of concession or of successive events: With so much to say , the two said nothing. The resolution calls for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from occupied territories, with a peace conference to follow. To summarize, the ways of translating English infinitives are as follows:. The gerund is not a regular equivalent of the Russian adverbial participle деепричастие.
It is closer to the verbal noun than to the adverbial participle. Churchill — Я всегда готов учиться, но мне не всегда нравиться, когда меня учат. The gerundial construction is always translated by the clause: He was amused at my becoming so impatient with him. He stayed there without our knowing it. When translating from Russian into English, it is necessary to pay attention to the careful selection of either the single gerund or the gerundial construction.
You and your friend are the countries he has been. Clare: We are going to recommended on shared computers. Maria has decorated her room with balloons and flowers Misha and Vera have bought wonderful souvenirs at a Russian shop. In June Sally Atkinson and. Paul and you are talking it on Saturday. I think it is fair. Share your impressions of them. You and your foreign friend the activities of that day. Nelly: I have got a how you and эйвон family. The children have formed 3 like best of all.Интерактивные каталоги Avon + эксклюзивные предложения. Смотрите и листайте каталог продукции Avon в онлайн, оформляйте доставку курьером или в пункт. Подписчиков: тыс.О себе: Avon – это компания, которая наносит тушь на ресницы и дает пищу на столы, которая одной рукой борется с морщинами и другой – с раком груди. Компания, которая знает цену идеальным губам и все же не молчит, а говорит «Нет» домашнему насилию и «Да» самореализации и финансовой независимости женщин. Это компания, которая не только приносит красоту в дом, но и открывает двери в мир новых возможностей. Компания, которая поддерживает 6 миллионов Представителей в более чем странах мира. Это Avon. Компания, которая на протяжении лет работает ради красоты, инноваций, оптимизма и, прежде всего, ради женщин!. Подписчиков: тыс.О себе: Посмотреть и заказать продукцию из каталога 16 можно по ссылке✨.